In the Waste Act (646/2011), hazardous waste is defined as waste with properties that render it flammable or explosive, infectious, or risk to human health or the environment in other ways, or with other corresponding properties, i.e. hazardous properties. Annex 4 of the Government Decree on Waste (179/2012) contains a list of the most common types of waste and hazardous waste. The classification of hazardous waste in the list is binding, but the Centre Economic Development, Transport and the Environment (ELY Centre) or the Regional State Administrative Agency (AVI) may, in certain cases and under specific conditions, grant exceptions to the classification. In certain cases, they may also decide that a material not classified as hazardous waste in the list is, in fact, hazardous waste, if such waste has a hazardous property.
Most common hazardous waste
Municipalities are obliged to organise the reception and treatment of hazardous waste produced in dwellings. Municipalities are also responsible for the recovery and treatment of hazardous agricultural and forestry waste, if the excessive quantities are not excessive. However, the management of hazardous waste produced in other activities is the responsibility of the holder of waste.
Handling and storage of dangerous chemicals
Bear in mind the following with regard to the processing and storage of hazardous waste:
Ensure appropriate labelling of hazardous waste and storage sites
Keep hazardous waste separate from other waste as instructed
Provide instructions for everyone who handles hazardous waste
Prepare instructions on how to handle waste and what to do if problems occur
Hazardous waste must be packaged appropriately with the necessary labelling information. The name of the waste holder and the waste itself must be marked on hazardous waste packaging, together with appropriate information of substances and warnings necessary for the safety and appropriate organisation of waste management. When hazardous waste possesses certain hazardous properties, these main properties of substances, components and mixtures contained in the waste that lead to a classification as hazardous must also be marked distinctly on the packaging, and it must include warning labels in accordance with the ie. CLP Regulation.
Packaging for hazardous waste must be secure and capable of being securely re-closed, and must endure the strain and load of normal use and transportation under normal conditions of storage. The packaging materials must not react with the hazardous waste in any way which can pose a risk or harm to human health or the environment. Hazardous waste must not be diluted or mixed with non-hazardous waste or different types of waste nor with other materials. Hazardous waste must be stored appropriately. In order to minimize the risk of dangerous situations, incompatible substances that cannot be mixed with each other must be placed appropriately.
Companies must keep records of existing and transferred hazardous waste. Bookkeeping must include information on the type, quality and quantity of hazardous waste and the name of the recipient and carrier, together with their contact information and the waste treatment method. The waste holder must draw up a shipping document on hazardous waste that is shipped and delivered to a consignee, and ensure that the shipping document accompanies the waste during shipment and that is it submitted to the waste consignee after shipment. The waste holder and consignee must retain the shipping document or a copy thereof for three years. Hazardous waste must not be stored for too long, and it is advisable that waste is transferred for processing at adequate intervals. This minimises any risk caused by hazardous waste.
The waste consignee and the company in charge of carrying the waste must hold the appropriate licences and approvals required for the operations under the Waste Act, the Environmental Protection Act (527/2014) and legislation governing the transport of hazardous substances. In addition, companies have an obligation to train those employees in charge of handling hazardous waste. The party delivering the waste has the obligation to ensure that the required permits are in order. If the carrier of the waste does not have the necessary permits for transporting hazardous waste, the responsibility for the waste lies with the holder. When hazardous waste is delivered to the consignee granted with the required permits and approvals for their operations, the responsibility for organising waste management is also transferred to the consignee. However, responsibility does not transfer to a carrier transporting waste on behalf of another party. If hazardous waste is delivered to a consignee other than the appropriate one, both the new and previous holder of waste will be responsible for organising waste management.
Chemicals in companies
Management of environmental risks
Transport of dangerous goods